Karnataka State Police

Emergency services

In Case of Road Accident

First-Aid

In Case of Wound
The job of first-aider is to remove or reduce the problems that hamper healing such as dirt, infection, movement, etc. Leave the wound undisturbed. Clean the wound by washing them with running water. If there are splinters, thorns and pieces of glass inside the wound remove them with a pair of tweezers so as to avoid infection.

In Case of Profuse Bleeding
The easiest way to stop bleeding is to apply direct pressure on the wound. This can be done with any clean folded cloth. Lean on the wound with the heel of the hand instead of your finger.


In Case of a Fracture
In case of a fracture do not apply direct pressure; instead use a splint, combined with as gentle pressure bandage. It is safer not to give the patient anything to eat and drink. This is to protect the patient from vomiting in case he needs anesthesia and surgery, or has a head injury. If the wound on the arm or the leg is bleeding profusely, it can be

In Case of Chest or Abdomen Injury
In abdominal wounds the intestines may come out. The only thing you can do as first-aider is to cover the wound with a very wet clean cloth and get the patient quickly to a hospital. The wet cloth will keep the intestine from drying out, and will stick to the intestine.
Open wounds of the chest could be sucking in the air, making it hard for the patient to breathe. Covering of the wound with a piece of polythene and putting a bandage on the top of this may help to reduce air being sucked into the chest. Get the patient quickly to hospital.

In Case Part of a Limb is Cut Off
If a part of the limb has been cut off it may be possible to reattach it to the body. Put it inside a clean polythene bag and place this bag in another bag with cold water. If you can easily get ice put some in the water to keep it cool. Make sure that the limb does not get soaked in water. If nothing else is available, carry the amputated part in a clean cloth quickly to hospital.
In large crush injuries or in amputation avoid washing the wounds, as it will lead to more blood loss. Just cover the wound with clean cloth and tie a pressure bandage quickly. If possible keep the limb raised. Avoid using raw cotton wool to cover a wound as it gets stuck to the wound, and is difficult to remove and delay healing.

In Case of an Eye Wound
Do not attempt any cleaning or washing of an open eye injury. Cover the eye with a clean soft cloth; place a stiff covering on top to prevent any pressure coming on the eye. This is important because the contents can be squeezed out even through a very small wound.

In Case of Bleeding from Ear
Bleeding from ears mean either injury to the ear alone, or serious head injury. Avoid putting anything in the ears to stop bleeding as this could further damage the eardrum. Get the patient to lie down with the injured ear facing down.

In Case Bleeding from Nose
Bleeding from nose could also mean a head injury. If the patient is conscious and can sit up, ask him to pinch his nose and breathe through his mouth. If he can lean forward, then that could prevent blood from going to his wind pipe choking him. If the patient is unconscious he should lie with the face to one side, for the blood to come out easily, so that there is no choking.

In Case of Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints
When muscle joints or bones get injured, blood collects over the area, and a swelling appears. You can reduce the swelling by bringing down the bleeding. Apply cold water or ice packs if available. It reduces local blood flow and this brings down the internal bleeding and swelling. But remember not to keep ice packs on more than ten minutes at a stretch as this will lead to something like frostbite, and not to place ice directly on skin. Always wrap it in a cloth first. A muscle injury can be made less painful by putting a splint on the injured limb.

In Case of Broken Bones and Dislocated Joints
A fracture or dislocation can be confirmed if there is obvious deformity, abnormal mobility, if the limb cannot be moved at all and if a grating feeling is there. First aid for all fractures and dislocations must aim to reduce movement, which will give relief from pain. Splinting should be done with caution.

Shifting the Injured to the Hospital
1.Ensure that he is not hurt more.
2.The patient should be carried on firm board of stretcher so spine remains stable.
3.While shifting, the patient's back, neck and airway need to be protected from further injury. So always take help of another person.
4.If the patient is unconscious, gently place a large folded cloth or towel under the neck so that the neck doesn't sag against the ground.
5.The vehicle used to carry the patient to the hospital should have enough space to keep the patient's back straight and the person accompanying should be able to care for and resuscitate the patients if necessary.
6.During transportation keep a watch on whether the patient's airway is clear, whether the patient is breathing and whether you can feel the pulse in the patient.
7.If there is only one limb injury the patient can be safely taken to hospital on a chair in a sitting position. Take care to splint or protect limb injuries or bleeding.

In case of Fire

080 - 25588444

080 - 25588555

080 - 22943030

080 - 22943131


In case of Fire at your home, office, factory , godown, shop etc immediately dial the following numbers
Dial 100 for Police
Dial 101 for Fire Tenders
Give exact address of your premises and also a clear route for the fire tenders and police to reach at the earliest.

In Case Of Fire: Most fires start out small, but after a few minutes they can be out of control. It's important to act fast to sound the alarm and just important to know what to do and to do it fast. This week's Tail Gate Safety Topic deals with what to do in case of a fire.

What to do In Case Of Fire - Call 101

Think Fast and Act with Caution: When you first discover a fire determine what to do immediately. If the fire is small and you have the proper fire extinguisher put it out

Sound the Alarm: Do not underestimate any fire. If the fire is too much for you to handle, report it immediately.

Warn the People: Warn all people in the area immediately so they can get to places of safety. This is especially important in the case of fires in buildings.

Stand By: Stay near, but at a safe distance from the fire. Meet and tell the fire fighters where the fire is. They can waste valuable minutes if they have to find it themselves.

Fire Fighting: Everyone is responsible for preventing fires. But everyone is not obligated to fight major fires. In general, never join in the fire fighting unless your help is requested by the firemen.

Correct Extinguishers: Different fire extinguishers are recommended for each type of fire. For CLASS A fires (wood, textiles and rubbish) use foam or water. For CLASS B fires (grease, motor vehicle, flammable liquids) use foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide or vapourizing liquid. NEVER use a water-type extinguisher on live electrical equipment. You can be electrocuted instantly by the electrical current following the water stream to your body. NEVER throw a stream of water on a CLASS B fire. You can splatter flaming liquids over a wide area, spreading the fire out of control.

To Summarize What we have Covered here you should Adhere to the following Guidelines:
1. NO MATTER WHERE YOU ARE, KNOW WHERE THE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ARE AND HOW TO USE THEM CORRECTLY SO THAT YOU WILL BE ABLE TO ACT QUICKLY.
2. KNOW WHAT TO DO AND DO IT QUICKLY
3. ACT SAFELY AND WITH CAUTION
4. SOUND THE ALARM /br>5. WARN OTHERS IN THE AREA
6. STAND BY TO DIRECT THE FIRE FIGHTERS TO THE FIRE
7. STAY BACK AND OUT OF THE WAY UNLESS YOU ARE ASKED TO HELP

If you follow these simple guideline you may be able to put out a small fire or at least keep a small fire under control. Ask your HR department for a copy of the relevant safety meetings for more information

 Ambulance

Toll Free - 105711

Toll Free - 1062 / 108


In Case of Disasters
In case of a natural or a man made disaster like earthquake, flood, bomb blast etc., evacuate the premises, dial the following telephone numbers for help

  • Dial 101 for Fire Tenders

  • Dial 100 for Police Assistance

  • Dial 102 for Ambulance




Road Safety
Guidelines for Children
The advice given below on crossing the road is especially for children. Children should be taught the safety code and should not be allowed on the road alone until they can understand and follow it properly. Children learn by example, so parents and teachers should always follow the Code proprely when going out with their children. They are responsible for deciding at what age children can use it safely by themselves.

While Walking to School
1. Always walk on the footpath only. On roads without footpath, walk on the extreme right hand side of the roads.
2. Do not be impatient on the road. Do not rush or run on the road.
3. Cross only at Zebra crossings, traffic signals, subways, foot over-bridges. Where such facilities do not exist, look for a safe place to cross.
4. At the signal lights, cross only on a clear green signal. If an intersection is controlled by a policeman, traffic warden or RSP cadet, cross only when he signals you to do so.
5. When crossing between vehicles parked on the side of the road, remember that you are not visible to the moving traffic (because the parked vehicles may be taller than you). Stop as you appear from behind the vehicle and look for a safe gap before crossing. Remember, drivers need plenty of time to see you and to slow down and stop.
6. While crossing wide roads that have central islands, always cross in two stages. Cross to the central Island , stop, and cross when the next section is clear.
7. While crossing one-way streets, remember that the traffic will usually be moving in a number of lanes and at higher speeds. Do not cross unless all lanes are clear.
8. Never cross a road at a corner/curve, as the motorist taking the turn will not be able to see you in time.
9. Running across the road is a bad idea, as you may slip and fall.

While going by Bus
1. Leave home well in time, so that you won't have to run to catch the bus.
2. At the bus stand, always follow the queue. Board the bus only after it has come to a halt, without rushing in or pushing others.
3. While in the bus, shouting or making a noise is definitely bad manners. Such behavior can also distract the driver.
4. Do not board or alight at a bus stop other than the one decided by the school. Never board and alight at a red light crossing or unauthorized bus stop.
5. Always hold onto the handrail if standing in a moving bus, especially on sharp turns.
6. Do not sit, stand or travel on the footboard of the bus.
7. Do not put any part of your body outside a moving or stationary bus.
8. Always adhere to the bus safety rules.

Guidelines for Parents of School Children:
1. Parents are equally responsible for the safety of their children during school journeys.
2. They must ensure that the mode of transport arranged by school or by themselves is absolutely safe.
3. Parents must play the role of vigilant observers. They should note down violations committed by school buses and immediately report to the authorities.
4. Parents must participate in P.T.A. meetings and discuss the safety aspects of their children.
5. While taking their children to school themselves, they should take proper care of their safety.
6. Parents must ensure that the children acquire the right knowledge and skills for safe use of roads. They should teach their children the basic rules of the road, how to walk and cross the road, how to alight and board a bus etc.
7. Parents should not allow their minor children to drive.
8. Parents must also ensure that the right attitude for a law abiding citizen is imparted to their children by the family.
9. Children are very good observers and therefore, parents must set an example by meticulously observing even small traffic rules.

Remember safety of children must be the foremost priority of every parent.
Guidelines for Teachers for Ensuring Safety of School Children :
It is the responsibility of school authorities and the teachers to ensure the safety of school children and also to impart the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to be a safe road user.
1. Teachers should help develop a responsible attitude towards road use in school children.
2. Teachers should impart essential knowledge about roads and traffic to school children, by:
3. Making them familiar with the rules of road and their importance.
4. By explaining them the causes of accidents involving pedestrians, cyclists and children.
5. Telling them about the cause and extent of pollution due to traffic.
6. Children come to school in various modes of transport. Teachers should ensure that:
7. The children enter and leave the school safely.
8. There is no conflict between pedestrians and vehicles.
9. The vehicles including school buses are parked safely and properly.
10.Children should be supervised and taken care of at the time of alighting and boarding the school bus.
11.Every school bus must be accompanied by a teacher for controlling the children and the bus driver.
12.The teacher should arrange for an alternate bus and keep the children together at one place if the school bus fails to arrive or if there is any problem.
13.There should be regular checking of school buses to ensure compliance with mandatory safety requirements.
14.If any school bus or any conveyance, by which children come to school, violates traffic rules, the teachers should inform about it to their principal or Traffic Police Control Room at Tel. Nos.100.

Essentials for a School Bus as ordered by the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India :
1. "School Bus" must be written on the back and front of the Bus.
2. it is a hired bus, "On School Duty" should be clearly indicated
3. Bus must have a First-Aid-Box.
4. The windows of Bus must be fitted with horizontal grills.
5. There must be a Fire Extinguisher in the Bus.
6. School Name and Telephone No. must be written on the Bus.
7. The doors of the Bus should be fitted with reliable locks.
8. To keep School Bags safely, there should be a space fitted under the seats.
9. There must be an Attendant from the School in the Bus.
10.Any parent/guardian or a teacher may also travel to ensure these safety norms.

The above mentioned points as directed by the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India are mandatory for all school buses. For further details, School managements can contact their nearest Traffic Inspector.

Guidelines for Pedestrians
The most important safety tip to reduce pedestrian injuries and fatalities is to pay attention.  You can significantly reduce your chances of being in a collision with a motor vehicle by obeying traffic rules and being aware of dangers posed by cars in your vicinity.  Make eye contact with drivers if possible and make sure that they can see you.

Pedestrians Must :
1. Where possible, avoid walking next to the kerb with your back to the traffic.If you have to step into the road, look both ways first.
2. Wear or carry something light coloured, bright or fluorescent in poor daylight conditions. When it is dark, use reflective materials (e.g. armbands, sashes, waistcoats and jackets), which can be seen, by drivers using headlights, up to three times as far away as non-reflective materials.
3. Young children should not be out alone on the pavement or road ( see Rule 7 ). When taking children out, walk between them and the traffic and hold their hands firmly. Strap very young children into push-chairs or use reins.
4. Always walk on the footpath, they are meant for you. Where there is no footpath, walk in the right side margin of the road so that you can see the traffic coming in the opposite direction.
5. Cross roads where there are pedestrian crossings. They have been painted at great cost for your convenience.
6. Where there are no pedestrian crossings, watch the traffic on both sides and cross when it is safe.
7. You MUST NOT walk on motorways or slip roads except in an emergency
8. Never walk on the main carriageway, it could be fatal
9. Do not read newspapers or look at hoardings while walking on the road.
10.Do not greet friends on the road. Take them to the footpath or the side margin.
11.Do not come on to the main road while waiting for a bus. Stay on the footpath at earmarked bus stoppage.
12.Where there are barriers, cross the road only at the gaps provided for pedestrians. Do not climb over the barriers or walk between them and the road.
13.Do not run after a moving bus. Follow safety rules on the road and live long.
14.You MUST NOT get on to or hold on to a moving vehicle.
15.Don't "Drink and Walk." If you've been drinking, take a cab or a bus, or let someone sober drive you home.
16.When walking at night, wear retro-reflective outdoor clothing or shoes or lights to make you more visible.  Avoid wearing dark clothing. 
17.At all crossings. When using any type of crossing you should always check that the traffic has stopped before you start to cross or push a pram onto a crossing . Always cross between the studs or over the zebra markings. Do not cross at the side of the crossing or on the zig-zag lines, as it can be dangerous. You MUST NOT loiter on zebra, pelican or puffin crossings.

We must follow the six-step crossing code whenever we have to cross the road :

1. Think
What is a safe place to cross? Where can I see all the traffic properly? Make sure you are not hidden behind a parked car.


2. Stop
At the edge of the road where you have decided to cross.


3. Look and Listen
Look both ways, many time, to see if there is any traffic coming.


4 . Wait
For all the traffic to pass, and for road to be clear


5. Cross
Walk straight across the road.


6. Keep Looking and Listening
Keep looking in all directions as you cross the road until you get to the other side.


Situations Needing Extra Care :

1. Emergency Vehicles : If an ambulance, fire engine, police or other emergency vehicle approaches using flashing blue lights, headlights and/or sirens, keep off the road.

2. Buses : Get on or off a bus only when it has stopped to allow you to do so. Watch out for cyclists when you are getting off. Never cross the road directly behind or in front of a bus; wait until it has moved off and you can see clearly in both directions.

3. Railway Level Crossings : Do not cross if the red lights show, an alarm is sounding or the barriers are being lowered. The tone of the alarm will change if another train is approaching. If there are no lights, alarms or barriers, stop, look both ways and listen before crossing.

4. Street and Pavement Repairs : A pavement may be closed temporarily because it is not safe to use. Take extra care if you are directed to walk in or to cross the road.

Guidelines for Cyclists
In order to be safe while cycling on roads of Bangalore and in other cities of karnataka, keep the following tips in mind.

Cycling on Roads

1.Before Riding a Cycle on Roads see if you can
1. Ride in a straight line for 10 meters.
2. Stop suddenly without falling.
3. Give signals with one hand while riding.
4. Look back over your shoulders and take a right turn comfortably.

2.Before you go out on the Road with your Bicycle, Ensure that
1. The bicycle is easily noticeable. It should be painted yellow, orange or white.
2. Reflectors are provided on spokes of wheels, on the pedals and on the front / rear mudguard.
3. Both the brakes are working properly
4. The bell rings properly.
5. The seat is so adjusted that your feet can touch the ground.

3.While on the Road with your Bicycle

a. You should Wear:
1. A cycle helmet made of light thermocol.
2. Appropriate clothes for cycling. Avoid clothes which may get tangled in the chain, or in a wheel or may obscure your lights.
3. Light-coloured or fluorescent clothing which helps other road users to see you even in dark and poorly lit roads.
4. Reflective clothing and/or accessories (belt, arm or ankle bands) in the dark.

b. You Should also follow these Rules:
1. Never ride with just one hand on the handle bar except when giving a signal.
2. Keep both feet on the pedals.
3. Do not ride more than two abreast.
4. Use the cycle lane, whereever provided.
5. Never follow any vehicle closely. Maintain safe distance.
6. Do not carry anything which may affect your balance or may get tangled up with your cycle wheels or chain.
7. Avoid big and busy roads with fast moving traffic.
8. Stop before you enter moving traffic from a driveway, a parking lot, a minor road, or from behind a parked car or bus. Go ahead only when the way is clear.
9. Ride on the left of the road, with other traffic.
10.If you are passing a stopped car be careful, a door may suddenly open.
11.Obey stop signs and traffic lights, like the rest of the traffic.
12.Before turning right at a crossing, look back over your shoulder, and give way to the traffic coming from behind.
13.Never stop your cycle on a pedestrian crossing.
14.Never ride your cycle on a footpath.
15.Never try to overtake- if you must, do it only if the driver of the vehicle in your front has permitted or signaled you to overtake.
16.Never try to overtake a vehicle, which is in the process of taking a turn.
17.Always follow the light signals wherever you notice them. Any violation of the same is not only against the law but also dangerous to your life.
18.Do not enter a street where you see the "No Entry" sign.
19.Slow down at the zebra crossing- better stop if you see people crossing the road.
20.You should learn and understand the language of signals given by the other road users and the signal you are expected to give while riding your cycle on the road.
21.Never stop suddenly without showing a signal. Watchfully move towards the left while slowing down, but signal your intentions to the traffic following you.
22.Under no circumstances should you ride on the wrong side of the road or cross the road abruptly.

Guidelines for Bus Commuters
Bus commuters should never board or deboard a moving bus. Maintaining a queue while boarding the bus will help avoid unnecessary hustle and bustle and will also save time. Once inside the bus keep your calm avoid shouting or making noise that would distract the driver, always hold onto the handrail if standing in a moving bus, stay away from the footboard of the bus and never put any part of the body outside a moving or stationary bus.

Commuters should Observe the following Guidelines when Traveling on the Bus :
1. Commuters should not distract the bus driver while the bus in motion. All queries and requests are to be directed to the bus driver prior to travel or at the end of the journey.
2. Commuters should conduct themselves in a respectable and responsible manner at all times ensuring that their behaviour does not endanger the comfort and safety of their fellow passengers or the bus driver.
3. The bus driver should not make any unscheduled stops in the course of travel.
4. Commuters who breach these guidelines or who in the opinion of the bus driver have not acted in a responsible or respectable manner may be refused travel in the future.
5. All commuters must hand over to the bus driver a valid pre-purchased ticket on entering the bus.
6. Any commuter who does not hand over a valid pre-purchased ticket will be refused travel by the bus driver.

Guidelines for Motorcyclists
The motorized two-wheeler rider is the one most likely to sustain serious injuries no matter what he hits- a pedestrian, a cat or another vehicle. This is because he is traveling at a speed more than 15 kmph without any protection around, and the human body is not able to tolerate forces generated when the head or any other bone hits hard and rigid objects at speed higher than 15 kmph.

We can Avoid Accidents by following Guidelines:
1. While driving always carry your driving license and important documents such as your vehicle registration certificate, insurance certificate, road tax and P.U.C certificate
2. MUST NOT carry more than one pillion rider and he/she MUST sit astride the machine on a proper seat and should keep both feet on the footrests.
3. Make yourself as visible as possible from the sides as well as the front and rear. You could wear a white or brightly coloured helmet. Wear fluorescent clothing or strips. Dipped headlights, even in good daylight, may also make you more conspicuous.
4. You should be aware of what is behind and in the sides before maneuvering. Look behind you; use mirrors if they are fitted.
5. Wear reflective clothing or strips to improve your chances of being seen in the dark.
6. Never Drink while driving
7. Follow the traffic signals, lights and signs
8. Avoid using the cell phone when driving. If urgent move to left, stop and then take the call
9. Do not ride at high speeds. You may lose control and your life in the bargain
10.Always use a helmet
11.Do not ride or wheel your vehicle on to the footpath
12.Use your lights when riding at night
13.Understand the signals given by other road users and use the same when riding
14.Never stop abruptly in traffic. Move to the left and slow down
15.When passing a stationery vehicle allow sufficient clearance for the car doors which may open suddenly
16.Do not try and weave your way through stationery or slow moving traffic. It may cause accidents
17.Slow down at zebra crossing and if needs be stop
18.Always ride with both hands on the handlebar except when signaling
19.Don't sit children on fuel tanks or stand them in front of the rider
20.Avoid using brakes at turns. If needed, ensure both brakes are applied gently
21.MUST wear a protective helmet. Helmets MUST comply with the Regulations and they MUST be fastened securely.

Facts about Helmet :
1. It should not obstruct vision.
2. It should not impair with hearing.
3. It should be light weight.
4. It should not cause fatigue which causes crashes.
5. It should not cause skin diseases.
6. It should not increase the probability of neck injuries.

Kinds of Helmets to be used :
1. It should have a thick padding of thermocole- at least 20 mm- which must extend to the sides of the head. A full face helmet is safer by all means.

Components of the Helmet and their Roles :
The Shell: The shell of a helmet is an injection molded thermoplastic or a pressure molded thermo set that is reinforced with glass fibers or made of fiber glass.
1. It absorbs energy in an impact:- The shell bends when the helmet is impacted and the underlying foam deforms. At moderate speeds the shell can take one-third of the impact energy.
2. It distributes local forces from an impact:- Rigid objects like stone or a projecting beam can cause a skull fracture at low forces, the shell acts to distribute the force of such impact eliminating the risk of penetration.
3. It allows sliding on road surfaces:- The shell being rigid and having a convex shape allows the helmet to slide along a road surface without there being an excessive force.
4. It protects the face and temples:- Full-face helmet is beneficial in protecting the face and jaw. The chin bar of such helmets contain rigid foam to absorb energy for direct blows on the chin, prevent facial bone fractures and prevent the lower part of the forehead and temple being struck.

The foam liner : This is a molding of polystyrene beads or polyurethane foam. It provides a stopping distance for the head. The foam can compress by 90% during an impact, although it recovers partially afterwards. But this helps increase the stopping distance thus reducing the peak deceleration of the head. It also protects as much as possible of the head.

Proper strapping system : It is essential to wear a well-fitting helmet for the effective working of chinstrap system. To test if the helmet fits your head properly, tightly fasten the chinstrap and then pull helmet off forward by gripping the rear and then pulling. The strap must be threaded correctly so that the buckle locks the strap when it is pulled from the chin side. The strap must be pulled as tight as is bearable under the chin.

Guidelines for Car Drivers
1. Always carry your driving license and important documents such as your vehicle registration certificate, insurance certificate, road tax and P.U.C certificate with you while driving.
2. Don't Drink while Driving.
3. Don't Drive under the influence of drugs.
4. Obey all traffic signals, lights and signs.
5. Use the indicator or hand signals when changing lanes.
6. Adhere to permitted speed limits.
7. Don't use your cell phone while driving. If you must, move to the left, halt and then make the call.
8. Irrespective of right of way, stay alert and be considerate to pedestrians especially senior citizens, handicapped, ladies and children.
9. Do not overload your vehicles - be it luggage or passengers.
10.Do not use tinted glasses, lenses or visors or anything that restricts vision at night or in poor visibility conditions.
11.Do not drink and drive as it adversely affects your judgement and abilities.
12.Wear seat belts.
13.Always drive using the correct gear.
14.Avoid sudden braking and harsh acceleration.
15.Never use the clutch as footrest while driving.
16.Do not overload your vehicle or trailer. Never tow greater weight than recommended by the manufacturer of your vehicle.
17. Please ensure that all children under 14 years of age wear seat belts or sit in an approved child restraint.
18. Driving in fatigue enhances the probability of an accident. To minimise this risk you must follow these rules:
i. Make sure you are fit to drive. Do not undertake a long journey (longer than an hour) if you feel tired.
ii. Avoid undertaking long journeys between midnight and early morning hours, when natural alertness is at its worst.
iii. Plan your journey in breaks. A minimum break of at least 15 minutes after every two hours of driving is recommended.
iv. If you feel sleepy, stop at a safe place. Do not stop on the hard shoulder of a motorway
v. The most effective ways to counter sleepiness are to take a short nap (up to 15 minutes) or drink, for example, two cups of strong coffee. Fresh air, exercise or turning up the radio may help for a short time, but are not as effective.
19.Children in cars. Drivers who are carrying children in cars should ensure that :
a. Children do not sit behind the rear seats in an estate car or hatchback, unless a special child seat has been fitted.
b. The child safety door locks, where fitted, are used when children are in the car.
c. Children are kept under control.
d. A rear-facing baby seat is never fitted into a seat protected by an AIRBAG.

Guidelines for Bus and Truck Drivers
Buses and Trucks fall under the category of heavy vehicle. They should be driven on the extreme left, speed governors are mandatory for them and the maximum speed limit for buses and trucks is 40 KMPH. Buses and trucks can never overtake any other vehicle. Bus drivers should drive their buses along the bus lane and should stop the buses inside the bus box that is drawn near the bus stops. Other buses that are coming behind and are destined to stop at this bus stop should stop behind the first bus in a line and wait for their turn. Under no circumstances can the latter bus stand parallel to the former bus or overtake it.

Guidelines for Bus and Truck Drivers Regarding Towing and Loading :
1. You must not tow more than your license permits you to.
2. You must not overload your vehicle or trailer. You should not tow a weight greater than that recommended by the manufacturer of your vehicle.
3. You must secure your load and it must not stick out dangerously.
4. You should properly distribute the weight in your caravan or trailer with heavy items mainly over the axle(s) and ensure a downward load on the tow ball. This should avoid the possibility of swerving or snaking and going out of control. If this does happen, ease off the accelerator and reduce speed gently to regain control.